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1 year ago


Diuretics are chemical substances used to lower high blood pressure. They act by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride ions symporter. The inhibition of the transport of these ions back into the blood leaves them in the ascending loop of henle(e part of action of diuretics). The macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus sense the presence of these ions,especially the chloride ions and respond by producing or synthesizing more prostaglandins(simply because macula densa cells have more cox-2 receptors). Prostaglandins, therefore, cause vasodilation of the afferent arteriole thus increasing the glomerular filtration rate and hence helps in the elimination of the excess ions.In effect, prostaglandins help in the efficient working of diuretics.

however, NSAIDS block the synthesis of these prostaglandins and hence affect the efficiency of diuretics.

1 year ago


Asthma is a respiratory tract disease which usually affects the airways making breathing difficult. During allergic reactions, histamine is released from basophils. Histamine then binds to histaminic receptors(specifically, h6 receptors). The response to this binding is bronchoconstriction. Constricted bronchus usually affects forced expiratory volume measurements and sometimes respiratory minute rate.

NSAIDS block the cox-pathway and potentiates the lox-pathway. In the lox-pathway, LTB4 and LTD4 are produced. The latter which is produced is a potent bronchoconstrictor thus precipitating asthma. This explains why asthmatics are not to be given NSAIDS.

        farewell, isn't it?

1 year ago


Brief introduction to anticoagulants

Anticoagulants are chemical substances(drugs), whose main mechanism of action is to prevent the coagulation(clotting) of blood in order to facilitate circulation. Anticoagulants act mainly either by inhibiting ADP receptors on platelets; inhibiting the synthesis of thromboxane A2 etc. Examples of anticoagulants include: warfarin, coumarin,clopidogrel(inihibits ADP receptors).

Since NSAIDS also act to inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane A2, the concomitant introduction of an NSAID might pose the threat of profuse bleeding. This explains why aspirin(an antiplatelet) is not given together with anticoagulants.

1 year ago


NSAIDS ( Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) are analgesics used to manage fever (pyresis), inflammation, and pain(as a result of inflammation). Examples of NSAIDS include: Aspirin, naprosyn, Diclofenac etc.
NSAIDS, like all other pain killers, work by inhibiting the synthesis of prostanglandins. Arachidonic acid is produced by the action of the enzyme, phospholipase A2 on phospholipids. The arachidonic acid produced then undergoes two different pathways: the cox-pathway and the lox-pathway.
                The cox-pathway
In the cox- pathway, arachidonic acid is converted to prostanglandin H2 by the action of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenases. The prostanglandin H2 is then acted upon by prostanglandin synthase to produce prostacyclin, thromboxane A2(together called, PROSTANOIDS).
               The lox-pathway
Also in the lox-pathway, arachidonic acid is acted on by lipo-oxygenases which converts it into leukotrienes namely '; LTB4, LTD4 etc.